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Crescimento e Desigualdade

28 February, 2012 Leave a comment Go to comments

“Much of China’s export-driven success has come at the expense of other poor countries. It is therefore a grave mistake to conclude from China’s example that all poor countries could have done, or could still do, similarly well. To be sure, the world economy is not a constant-sum game, where growth is fixed so that some can gain more only if others gain less. But export opportunities into the affluent countries’ markets are tightly limited by protectionist barriers—quotas, tariffs, anti-dumping duties, export credits and subsidies—that the richer countries have successfully insisted on being allowed to retain. These barriers contribute to making export results for the poor countries strongly interdependent. China’s exporters could succeed only by out-competing exporters from other poor countries, thereby lowering export prices, along with wages and labor standards, for all poor exporting countries. More recently, China’s huge imports have raised prices of raw materials (petroleum most notably), thus slowing the development of other poor countries dependent on imports of the same natural resources. These interdependencies surely go some way toward explaining why, outside China, the reported number of people in poverty has actually been stagnant, even rising. We must consider the full picture, not just China alone, if we want to assess, with equity and poverty concerns in mind, the growth WTO globalization has engendered. Looking at humanity at large, we find once more a relentless rise in inequality. Real incomes of the poorest 5 percent of world population declined 20 percent during 1988–1993 and another 23 percent during 1993–1998, even while real global per capita income rose 5.2 percent and 4.8 percent respectively”

Thomas Pogge, Growth and Inequality: Understanding Recent Trends and Political Choices

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